Milk yield and goat fertility are influenced significantly by light, particularly the lighting regime or day duration. Melatonin the ‘sleep hormone’ is created in greater quantities in the brain when it is dark. It is involved in the generation of growth hormones as well as the suppression of the insulin hormone.
When the days are longer and there are more hours of light, the growth hormone is produced more, resulting in increased milk yield. As the days get shorter, milk supply decreases while fat formation and mating readiness increase.
The light in the house must be limited to 8 hours per day for drying off. In addition to adjusting the feeding schedule, you should change the lighting schedule from short to long days to boost lactation.
A goat's health and performance is dependent on good indoor air quality. Ventilation systems help to control the quality of indoor air.
One issue with ventilation is that young goats may not produce enough heat to keep air flowing and maintain comfortable inside temperatures. Supplemental heat can assist to help maintain a comfortable room temperature and air flow in certain situations. Radiant heaters create an ideal environment by heating things such as bedding (rather than the air) where youngstock can benefit the most.
Natural ventilation, chimney fans, positive pressure ventilation tubes, or a mix of these can effectively control the indoor air quality in goat housing. Make sure the systems you choose can handle the vast range of air exchange rates that you'll need throughout the year. In cooler conditions installation of radiant type heaters and automatic ventilation controls helps to maintain stable indoor conditions.
By ensuring there is constant air flow around the shed, to remove stale air and dust, will help avoid respiratory issues occurring.
The building should protect the goats from prevailing winds and rain in order to reduce stress, avoid feed spoilage and reduce feed waste from energy spent on keeping warm. As well as this provide a quiet, stress free atmosphere to encourage rumination whilst lying down. Stressed goats will have suppressed dry matter intakes and a poor milk yield will reflect this.
Dairy goats may be successfully kept in a variety of climates. They don't require costly housing, but they do demand a clean, dry, well-ventilated, draft-free environment. Cement floors are preferred. Each goat should have at least 15 square feet of bedding space.
The outside exercise space must be well and properly gated, with a minimum of 25 square feet of space per animal. Dairy goats have a strong herd instinct and prefer to be in the company of other goats. Male and female goats should be housed separately.
Make sure that there is enough feeding space to prevent bullying or competition. An inappropriate amount of space will lead to less dominant goats eating less and struggling to produce milk. Arranging the goats in size groups can prevent bullying behaviour.
To reduce waste, hayracks are a good option. If there is a build-up of refused feed, they should be cleaned out on a regular basis. Feeding areas in freestall barns can be readily managed from the barn's center, and hay and grain can be provided as needed based on the nutritional needs of the animals. Cleaning the feeding areas is easy with these types of equipment. Lactating goats, on the verge of giving birth, and young males can all be handled and fed separately in various quarters around the building.
Raising the bedding for the goats to comfortably lie on away from dirt and dampness helps encourage ruminating and reduces mastitis and other bacterial illnesses. Wood shavings, sawdust, or straw are great materials for bedding. It's critical that the top of the pack stays dry in order to keep the animals dry. Wet bedding can harbor bacteria, parasites, and worms, as well as emit noxious aromas and fumes.
Removable panels can promote air flow if the shed is utilised as a shade in the summer. Overstocking is especially detrimental for goats in temperate regions since it encourages internal parasite infestation. One of the most important protocols is to clean out the housing regularly.
Goat dairies are quite similar to cow dairies, however milking goats can be more labour intensive. Goat's udders should be kept clean pre- and post-milking by teat-dipping. If these procedures are carried out correctly and bedding is replenished regularly then the chances of mastitis can be reduced.
It’s important to keep milking time consistent, about 12 hours apart. Ensure your milking equipment is sterilised to kill any contaminating bacteria and chill the milk as soon as you’ve milked.
The walk way to and from the parlour should be monitored to guarantee it is safe, clean and dry to eradicate injuries and improve overall feet condition.